Thursday, May 4, 2017

Keys to recovery; don't let soreness hold up the next workout! Part 2; Recovery workouts and techniques.

Part II of the Consistency series
You will never be successful in your workout if you cannot stay consistent and manage soreness and injury..
As discussed in part one found here, the amount of success reaching your fitness goals means making sure you can string together enough workouts. As we said in our last post; consistency is key!!! 

There are many things that can get in the way of a consistent routine.  For those new to my blog, I use sports science to prevent the number one way of loosing your consistency.. Injury!  But injury alone does not hinder our progress.  Travel, work obligations, family obligations and delayed onset muscle soreness(DOMS) from the previous workout all conspire against results.
Finding exercises that fit your time and lifestyle (discussed in this post) can take care of the when and where. Preventing injuries can really get your routine on a roll(discussed hereherehere and here,), but will you be giving that next workout your best?  
The Commandments of weight training;
For success in any workout program it has to adhere to the principles of training: specificity, overload, rest, adaptation and reversibility. These are the basics "commandments" of exercise, and for your next workout to really be effective, the second "commandment": overload must be adhered to (really all of them do).  

Overload: Human's can't register a 10% difference

You can progress your workout or "overload" it a number of different ways, slight changes are sure fire ways of "upping the ante".
  1. Increase the working weight,
  2. Increase the repetitions,
  3. Increase the time under tension, 
  4. Increase the number of sets  
  5. Increase the intensity(decrease rest time)
You're either moving towards me or away from me. 
As you can see, there needs to be a progression to really force adaptations to training and ultimately progress in to a stronger, leaner and better athlete. It's widely known that if your sets, reps, weights are decreasing you are most likely over-training. The amount of overload will be largely dependent on how recovered you feel. The take home message is that; if you are not progressing you are regressing!  So lets get to what has been proven and what has been reported by athletes to help. 

Rest: 
Rest speaks to recovering, the more you do to recover, the less rest you need. The following factors will speed up the process and lessen the chance of injury overall.
Active Recovery
This concept is basically about getting the blood pumping to the body and the sore muscle groups in question. What the research is showing is that it's better to perform a light, low intensity workout as opposed to just completely resting.  One study documented the lactate clearance was improved when performing related activity either after an event or in between sets. The intensity was at 30 % the original(1).  Another study noted that adding the active recovery also improved psychological recovery by adding relaxation(2). A third study showed a decrease in overall lactate levels in athletes who added recovery workouts and massage on rest days(3).  Excellent examples of Active recovery workouts on rest days include but are not limited to:
  • light kettle bell work (swings, halo's, dead-lifts, windmills)
  • Battle ropes
  • Jump rope
  • Cardio (rowing, treadmill, walking, elliptical)


Stretching
This one would seem to be a slam dunk right? Stretch a sore muscle. Yet much of the available research tells us the contrary is true. There is little benefit to stretching to relieve muscle soreness.  Which makes the next subject a bit more confusing(4,5,6).  Please do not completely abandon stretching, it's still has some merits!

Yoga
Many automatically infer that Yoga is about stretching, when in reality, there is a strong body stabilizing/strengthening effect, an affect on breathing/oxygenation as well as a calming effect. Another reason it would seem beneficial is that it's a low load long duration activity, much like our active recovery. If recovery workouts are beneficial, then adding extra oxygen to metabolize lactate and increasing circulation are the way to go(7).


Massage
This modality has been around and has obvious benefits, while there is plenty of studies, it's been used and commented on so many times, that there's no need to expand much further(8). Many athletes come in to our office on a maintenence basis to make sure they are at peak performance.  Athletes all the way up to the professional level do the same. 

Common Sense
Some exercise enthusiast may be a little too aggressive when starting a program, if you soreness lasts more that 7 days, consult your doctor(not your exercise professional).  In cases of excessively long periods of soreness consider a more gradual increase in any of the "overload" factors. The body cannot register a difference of 10%, so that is always a good starting point. Remember the greatest ability is AVAIL-ABILITY, you aren't getting stronger if you can't get off the couch. 
  
We will cover some of the other principles in a third installment of Key's to recovery.

The take home message is that the traditional approaches many take just don't work. Research shows that light activity in between sets and workout are the best way to make sure your moving to live and living to move!

Today we provided principles, so you can adapt your own protocols, don't hesitate to contact us with questions. 
Please let us know you visited our blog by liking, commenting & sharing.

Dr. Serafim is a Rehabilitation and a Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He lives and works in the Exton PA area and has devoted himself to furthering his understanding of movement related disorders. He teaches continuing education and operates a private practice. More information can be found at Kinetx.org and feel free to like us at our facebook page.

(1) Effects of active recovery on plasma lactate and anaerobic power following repeated intensive exercise. Ahmaidi S, Granier P, Taoutaou Z, Mercier J, Dubouchaud H, Prefaut C. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1996 Apr;28(4):450-6. PMID: 8778550

(2) Effect of incorporating low intensity exercise into the recovery period after a rugby match. M Suzuki, T Umeda, S Nakaji, T Shimoyama, T Mashiko, and K Sugawara, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2004 38: 436-440.

(3) Blood Lactate Removal Using Combined Massage and Active Recovery. Micklewright, D P. 1; Beneke, R FACSM 1; Gladwell, V 1; Sellens, M H. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 35(5) Supplement 1:S317, May 2003.
(4) Lund, H., Vestergaard-Poulsen, P., Kanstrup, I., & Sejrsen, P. (1998). The effect of passive stretchng on delayed onset muscle soreness , and other detrimental effects following eccentric exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports8, 216–221.
(5) Herbert, R., de Noronha, M., & Kamper, S. (2011). Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 7, CD004577. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004577.pub3
(6) Cheung, K., Hume, P., & Maxwell, L. (2003). Delayed onset muscle soreness: treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Medicine33(2), 145–164.
(7)Boyle, C., Sayers, S., Jensen, B., Headley, S., & Manos, T. (2004). The effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on delayed onset muscle soreness in the lower extremity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research18(4), 723–729.
(8)Training, Journal Of Athletic. Www.journalofathletictraining.org Effects of Massage on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, Swelling, and Recovery of Muscle Function (n.d.): n. pag. Web.
Part III of the Consistency series

What you're missing: The Commandments of exercise.
Essential advice for putting together a successful workout program and smashing through the plateaus when your workout becomes stagnant.

It sure looks like cross-fit in some ways

In parts one and two we covered some of the issues that can interfere with consistency as well as went over the "Commandments of training".  In this final installment we will finish talking about the essential concepts of exercise so you can train smart and "MOVE TO LIVE & LIVE TO MOVE"

In review the basic tenets are  overload, restadaptation, specificity and reversibility.  We covered the first two last time so lets get to the rest.

Specificity: You reap what you sow
Anyone want to guess what Micheal Johnson's adaptations were?

If you sprint, you develop big quads.  If you work with your hands, you develop big forearms.  Humans are adaptable creatures, almost everything we are exposed to eventually we adapt to. Whether it's a hot bath or a loud room at a party or concert, what your initially exposed to eventually becomes "background noise".  Fitness training is no different, it shapes and molds each one of us (activity dependent), and if done enough, it becomes a bit routine. The S.A.I.D. principle (a common rehab/fitness concept) states exactly that, we specifically adapt to the imposed demands placed upon us; it's the reason the stone masons forearms are so big and strong or the Kenyan marathoner who seems built for what he does.  In fact the Kenyan IS built for what he does, and is the work of many generations and demands imposed.  These individuals commonly have crossed large desert distances for generations and have become efficient at doing so.
Here's a thought;  If this is true, why do we train our high school pitchers in the weight room? We're training them to be slow and plodding, a pitcher's biggest need is speed!  

The perfect marathon machine crafted over generations
Adaptation: It goes both ways...
The body's ability to learn, adapt and improve allows us greater ability, but it also causes our progress to plateau.  Doing the same exercise or activity week in week numbs the physiologic response that is responsible for muscle growth, hormonal adaptations and the enzymatic changes that gives us better endurance (better 02 delivery, improved energy systems).  If it ain't broke don't fix it does not apply in regards to adaptation, while it makes things easier for us, it also makes us comfortable.  In fitness we need to be challenged and constantly pushed.



The point of diminishing returns..
When your're a regular at the gym you see the same people doing the same thing, day in and day out.  Many look the same the always do (and still not at their ideal).  Why isn't their hard work paying off with success?  It's a fact of sports science that if you have been doing a certain type of training for long enough, that you are losing out on gains in strength and weight loss.  I'm a personal example of this, and when I became informed and changed my ways, I was rewarded with less injuries, a leaner physique and a stronger body. I now try and share that knowledge, check out some of these great techniques with a trainer that knows WHY and HOW to do it properly. 

Shocking the system.. it's called Periodization
The process of changing what you do every few months is called periodization, professional athletes do it,  so you should most likely be doing it as well. There are many different reasons to change up what you are doing. It cuts down on injuries by giving some of you body parts and tissues a rest.  In professional sports it's broken down in to seasons;
Preseason- sports specific skills training, improve cardio vascular endurance
In-season-maintenance of strength, manage injuries, light cardio 
Postseason/Off-season-add muscle mass, increase speed, manage injuries
Each period has specific goals and is geared to addressing what may have developed in the period before. While most, if any of us are not professional athletes, they are the gold standard that should be followed.  This set-up can be adapted to any type of athlete or exercise enthusiast.
We can adapt the season analogy defining what the pro's want to accomplish in each period and relate it to someone who wants a great physique. 
Diet down-Getting ready for your Activity or season(bathing suit weather)
Maintain-Keep the weight off while still enjoying life(bike, kayak,watersports)
Get strong-take advantage of additional calories of the holidays to increase muscle mass
Get fast- begin to shed extra weight and improve cardio vascular system

Reversibility: Fear not!
The concept of reversibility is one we can all sympathize with, it's the idea that our gains made through exercise are lost at a rate of 3:1.  In other words If we worked out for one month it would take our body three months to loose or "forget" the benefits that came with said exercise program.  But like adaptation, it goes both ways!  The concept also states that the de-trained athlete will quickly recover the lost gains due to inactivity vs. someone who was completely uninitiated.  So, while it's true that if you don't use it you loose it, it's also true that after you loose it it's easier to get it back compared to someone who never had it to start.  To avoid reversal of gains simply perform one set to complete fatigue of each body part once a week!


To summarize this series, here are some do's and don'ts;
Do Increase you weight, reps, time or sets 10% consistently
Do Get your vitamins from whole foods and stay hydrated
Don't Drink alcohol if you're trying to get in  better shape
Do address post muscle workout soreness with active recovery techniques
Don't get stuck doing the same routine for longer than 4 months
Do exercise the target muscle to fatigue
Don't completely stop, if need be maintain with one set a week
Do train in a specific manner if you are an athlete with specific needs (i.e. baseball pitcher)
Don't just sit there, I just gave you the road map, now get out there and Live to move and move to live!


 Today we provided principles, so you can adapt your own protocols, don't hesitate to contact us with questions. 
Please let us know you visited our blog by liking, commenting & sharing.

Dr. Serafim is a Rehabilitation and a Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He lives and works in the Exton PA area and has devoted himself to furthering his understanding of movement related disorders. He teaches continuing education and operates a private practice. More information can be found at Kinetx.org and feel free to like us at our facebook page.


  





Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Get the best of the past and the future with these intense full body blasting tools

In today's world  everything old is new again-retro fashion, paleo diets and now fitness. To help understand why some of these exercise techniques may be right for you, it's best to examine what and who they can benefit.
Each system has its roots in the fitness industry evolution, most are combinations of several systems. It seems some of the conventional wisdom we heard when we were young like "sit up straight" or "eat your vegetables" were actually time proven wisdom. Here's a picture of President Truman's gym; note the rings, medicine balls and gym mat. This was state of art at the time, but let's look at the rings and what that has come of it since then.
Simplicity..
TRX
Suspension training is nothing new, high school gymnasiums included climbing ropes and rings in simpler times. TRX is a regressed form of gymnastic training.  Bodyweight training is always functional (click here to learn more about functional training), since you have to control the weight you're using which trains your stabilizer muscles, allowing to avoid overuse and ballistic injuries. TRX also allows for some great stretching activities. Homefit.com does a great job putting together just a few of the stretching activities that can be performed.
Who's it good for? Suspension training is excellent for the beginner who cannot handle their full bodyweight in compound movements like the squat, push up and pull up.  As you get stronger (which should occur in the first 9-12 weeks) you continue to progress your training by moving foot or hand position into a more weight bearing position. TRX coerces  you to brace your core promoting "stiffness" and forces you to integrate your core in your basic movements.  
Low back pain patients would greatly benefit from this type of program after rehab that would include addressing  mobility and pain issues. This work out is a great example of a local muscle endurance "military" type work out. It builds capacity, allowing you to work harder for longer.  It's a great segue to a hypertrophy "bodybuilding" workout, since you should be able to perform compound movements correctly before you start adding weight to your moves.

TRX, the ultimate "road warrior" getting in shape and staying in shape takes consistency(read more about it here).  TRX is light  weights and supremely portable for the home gym or busy traveling professional. It comes with a door anchor that can be used virtually anywhere. 

Medicine and Smash Balls
We have been working with balls ever since cave man threw his first boulder at a saber tooth. Medicine ball training started with Persian wrestlers and later with ancient Greek healers. They got the name "medicine" balls because they served as functional correctives for people with injuries and sickness.  The point with tossing or smashing activities are to use your legs and core to develop the power in the toss.  Too many times athletes striking motion, be it kicking or throwing, are DETACHED from their core. This dynamic causes a "leak" in energy in the athletes kinetic chain (movement chain). An excellent example was mentioned in this post that mentioned MLB pro. pitcher Tim Lincecum
Who is it good for? Everyone could benefit from Medicine/Smash balls but high school, college and pro athletes have the most to gain. They can provide a local muscle endurance(military training) type work out or a plyometric type workout. Both types could be used for recovery, endurance or calorie burning. 
Working with balls you can enhance several different movement planes of the muscular system
One of the high level trainers I look up to Todd Durkin,  is training Darren Sproles here with smash balls in the diagonal plane lift.  Drew Brees is working out of the triple flexion position in the background.  Todd works with MLB pitchers and NFL athletes, he rarely trains just one movement plane,  and is one of the best trainers anywhere. 

Floor gliders have infinite variation
Floor Gliders/Ab Wheels
Ab wheels have been around for many years, they provide excellent core activation, and tie the core into pectoral and deltoid movements.  They also target some of our accessory stabilizers and promote functional stability. There's upper and lower limb variations such as this "mountain climber" variant.  This type of exercise it great to work in to a rehab protocol or a high intensity interval workout. From shoulder syndromes to weak lower back/cores, these simple yet effective tools are much harder than you would imagine.  The also burn a TON of calories given their nature( whole body activation).  
Core Flyte just released their V2 glider/stability trainer and they also have a variety of exercise routines on their website at everlast.com.  Here is a split squat with the trailing foot on V2 glider.
Who's it good for?  Again, everyone would benefit from some linkage from core to extremities.  These are also compact and light weight so the travelling athlete could make really great use of them for maintenance.  They can promote both scapular(shoulder blade) and lumbar(low back) stability, just where you need it the most!

By mixing in some of these tools your body will be stronger, more resilient and more stable.  The more you repeat your routine the less successful it will be.  Tune in next time when we discuss programming your exercise routing like the Pro's. 


 Today we provided principles, so you can adapt your own protocols, don't hesitate to contact us with questions. 
Please let us know you visited our blog by liking, commenting & sharing.

Dr. Serafim is a Rehabilitation and a Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He lives and works in the Exton PA area and has devoted himself to furthering his understanding of movement related disorders. He teaches continuing education and operates a private practice. More information can be found at Kinetx.org and feel free to like us at our facebook page.


  

More Sports Science; Techniques to train post injury and the importance of full body stiffness, (that's right stiffness).

By Dr. E Serafim
  
I don't want to train you; I want you to train better, so listen up.   

Are you looking for a quicker, more challenging routine but less Weight? Or, perhaps you were injured enough to limit you but not keep you from working out?  Today's post features different workout techniques that lets get more done with what you have, using less weight. It incorporates some isometrics and some isotonic(no movement) exercises. This style of workout is great for changing things up (i.e. Sports periodization),  works best for those with shoulder or back problems, anyone with endurance issues, workers with physical labor requirements in their jobs and athletes who have plateaued. Even if you're injured you can still look like Superman by adding the concept of irradation (when a contraction begins in one spot & begins to radiate throughout the area.)
So if you're injured but still want to continue some exercises? Consider adding the concepts of irradiation, stiffness and rooting!
The front (anterior) chain is dominating here, there's a very high probability of shoulder and neck issues when this individual tries to start a program.


Coming back from injury? Consider this; move less, work more!
 
Imbalance of muscle groups and movement chains commonly leads to injury. Understanding how our muscles are situated(and work against each other) helps us appreciate the importance of balance. Here's where we turn our attention to those who are feeling the effects of overuse or are finished with a supervised rehab program (but haven't fully recovered from their injury).  In this installment we're going to look at some ways to use less weight but actually work very hard by carrying and pressing, but first we need understand some concepts. 
Exercise working the frontal plane


Exercise working the Sagittal plane   

Planes & Chains




Understanding how muscles work together and against each other is essential when considering the contributing factors to injuries and overuse. Movement occurs in 3 planes, and when considering any program it's important that these chains of muscle are  balanced for so many different reasons. When the individual "loads"(adds weight or reps) imbalanced patterns, injuries occur.  It's like working out hard and fast with really bad form; it's just an injury waiting to happen. 
We discussed these dynamics in previous posts here  and here.  Kinetic chains are the muscles situated along the different sides of the body(anterior, posterior and 
lateral/rotational). Having a  balanced frame will allow you to work harder, longer and safer in not only your exercise but also in your daily living activities.  Many of the workouts I see only consider one plane; forward to backward (sagittal), so it's no surprise why the rate of injury for those who work out is prevalent. Also consider that a large percentage of those who get injured do not return to their exercise routine. 

Muscles working together for a full body contraction;  
My Blogs are all about movement & how the body synchronizes movement to help out adjacent parts. Irradiation is an essential rehab & performance concept. As the body works harder the muscles along the same kinetic chain contract together. A perfect example of irradiation would be lifting up a heavy suitcase.  The lift begins with a hand grip, then the contraction spreads to the arm,  shoulder, then to the core and entire body.  Our muscles do not act alone; but moreso are part of a symphony, all performing together.
By activating more muscles we benefit from all of the physiologic effects of resistance training on a larger scale. This leads to more muscle growth, more calories burned & shorter intervals until you've exhausted the target group---workout complete! Pavel Tsatsouline frequently discusses irradiation and Professor Stuart McGill developed the concept or abdominal bracing and  the  his concept "Super Stiffness". A Radiating Muscle Contraction



Bottoms Up!  
By holding a weight on it's end or using a Russian Kettle-bell we can accomplish this very beneficial whole body contraction. The Kettle-bell carry is a common exercise in Kettle-bell training.  Typically carries are performed with a walk, if you have a a painful joint, as long as walking is okay, this exercise can still provide a challenge. It can be performed stationary(isometrically) or as part of a movement pattern(isotonically).  Some of these moves I've developed & others have been around since Pavel created the kettle bell workout. The main point is as long as you understand the concepts you can add your own movements. The idea behind irradiated contractions is to squeeze the weight like you want to crush it. Here's some bottoms up basics for irradiated tension & stiffness.


The Racked Position; 

This is the basic starting position for any carry or press position-being a position of strength it should serve as the starting & ending point.

-Elbow: locked into your body (imagine holding a piece of fabric between your arm & armpit-or have someone tuck one in & try to remove it against your resistance)

-Forearm: perpendicular to the ground

-Wrist: neutral

Once you can perform this position you're ready to turn the weight upside down.


Pavel demonstrating the correct racked position. Note the contracted abdomen, neutral wrist, perpendicular forearm  and the need for some new shorts.

Anterior Chain Exercises; 
Now that we have the basics we can load our correct patterns. Keep in mind I'm using stiffness as well as a very hard grip to help create the full body stiffness. Form is absolutely everything with exercise so use a mirror or have a qualified exercise/movement pro supervise you until you got the hang of it. Perform 2-3 sets per chain, 6-8 reps per exercise, for the carries, walk with the weight for at least 15 seconds up to a minute.  Most importantly keep in mind NO BAD REPS!


The double bottoms up carry
Overhead double bottoms up carry
Bottoms up overhead deep squat(a) with rooting of the feet.


Bottoms up overhead deep squat(b)
Bottoms up push up (a)



Bottoms up push up(b)


The un-horned Goblet squat
The Lateral/Rotational Chain Exercises;
 Carries are excellent for resetting the shoulder blade which essential for correct shoulder function, they're also a whole body exercise.
The asymmetric bottoms up carry
Overhead asymmetric bottoms up carry
Bottoms up arm bar (a)


The arm bar is an excellent choice for those who sit all day
Bottoms up arm bar (b)
Bottoms up windmill (a)


Bottoms up windmill (b)The Posterior Chain Exercises;
These exercises are predominantly lower body exercises and are excellent for runners, bodybuilders as well as anyone who sits for long periods. Many of these exercises have already been popularized by the RKC and Strong First.

The Bottoms up Romanian Dead lift (a)


The Bottoms up Romanian Dead lift (b)

Full body contractions through irradiation are common;
In Yoga;  
The Yoga People Had it Right...The benefit we get by gripping hard with our hands is applicable to the feet. The Yoga concept of “rooting”  improves stability, power & arch support. Incorporating this concept in your workout can be done through barefoot training (which is the only training I do).  It's a great way to get the most out of rooting, stiffness & irradiation. Dragon Door.com does a nice job of explaining rooting-the basic premise is to screw your feet into the floor or try to split the floor between your feet. Bringing awareness to your balance.



In physical medicine rehab,  
A Good Stiffness; The Abdominal Brace
Mastering the abdominal brace is the latest and most proven method stabilizing your core and protecting your spine. This technique will improve your power and increase the amount of work done (reaping more stength training benefits). The easiest cue to help someone understand is to have them bare down like they were going #2. Other ways is to have them stiffen like they were a statue and push against random body parts. Consult with your movement specialist or qualified trainer to ensure you have mastered this before using it, fitness professionals can learn more here. I can assist if you want to reach out.
The following exercise will provide new challenges & activate muscles that will stabilize both joints & core muscles. You don't need fancy equipment to do these exercises; kettlebells are perfect or as a second choice a dumbbell held on its long side will also work for the concept of Irradiation.

 Today we provided principles, so you can adapt your own protocols, don't hesitate to contact us with questions. Please like or comment if you stop by, so many have told me they enjoyed my blog, but there's no way for me to know without posting, sharing or liking.


Dr. Serafim is a Rehabilitation and a Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He lives and works in the Exton PA area and has devoted himself to furthering his understanding of movement related disorders. He teaches continuing education and operates a private practice. More information can be found at Kinetx.org and feel free to like us at our facebook page.